Equipment

       Ten two-way conditioned avoidance response boxes from Med Associates. Each box is divided into two equally-sized compartments by a white PVC partition with an arch-style doorway. Each box is also equipped with 16 photobeam sensors that can track the location and movement of a rat placed inside. The floor is made of steel rods through which a minor scrambled footshock can be administered. A speaker is affixed on the ceiling of the sound-insulated chamber to provide auditory stimuli, such as white noise or pure tones.
       Four ultrasonic vocalization detectors  from Avisoft Bioacoustics are connected to eight conditioned avoidance chambers and are capable of detecting sounds up to 120 kHz.
       Sixteen polycarbonate cages are each placed in steel frames equipped with 16 photobeam sensors capable of detecting animal location and movement.
         Six StartleMonitor systems from Kinder Scientific each are equipped with a piezo transducer tray capable of detecting animal startle responses by weight changes. Rats are kept on the plate with an adjustable restraining apparatus. A speaker built into the sound-insulated chamber provides auditory stimulus. The tray may also be equipped with a fear potentiation grid capable of producing footshock.
       An elevated plus maze is equipped with a video tracking system from Biobserve.
       Catalepsy box
       Forced Swim Test System
       Stereotaxic Instrument
       CCD camera-equipped microscope from Olympus
       Brain slicing cryostat (Leica 3050) from Leica
       BioTek‚Äôs PowerWave HT microplate spectrophotometer
       Bio-rad western blot complete system (Mini-Protean Tetra Cell, Mini Trans Blot Module, and Power Supply, etc)
       Reat time PCR system